Glossary of Oculoplastic Terms - B

B cell lymphoma: Types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma affecting B cells. It develops more frequently in immune compromised individuals.

Basal cell carcinoma: Most common type of skin cancer. A slow-growing, malignant, but usually non-metastasizing epithelial neoplasm of the epidermis or hair follicles, most commonly arising in sun damaged skin of the elderly and fair skinned.

Basal cell nevus syndrome: A syndrome of myriad basal cell nevi with the development of multiple basal cell carcinomas in adult life. These patients need to be followed closely for the development of basal cell carcinoma.

Benign mixed tumor: Neoplasm of epithelial and myoepithelial differentiation, varied architectural and cytologic features and mucoid, myxoid or chondroid stroma.

Blepharochalasis: A congenital or acquired condition characterized by undue looseness or pendulousness of the eyelid skin due to an abnormality or deficiency of elastic fibers. This is an idiopathic condition.

Blepharoplasty: Blepharo = eyelid + Plasty = to change. An operation performed to remove excess skin, muscle or fat from the eyelids to create a more youthful appearance. This procedure needs to be customized and individualized for the patient. The art of blepharoplasty has changed significantly in the past 10 years. Today the goal of the operation is to create a more natural look based on each patient's individual needs.

Blepharoptosis: Drooping of the upper eyelid.

Blepharospasm: Involuntary spasmodic contraction of the orbicularis oculi muscle.

Blowout fractures: Bone fractures caused by direct trauma to the globe, which leads to an increase in intraorbital pressure and decompression via fracture of the orbital floor.

Blue nevus: A dark blue or blue-black nevus covered by smooth skin and formed by heavily pigmented spindle-shaped or dendritic melanocytes in the reticular dermis.

Botox: A neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It is used in minute doses both to treat painful muscle spasms, and as a cosmetic treatment. In cosmetic facial rejuvenation it allows paralysis of the affected muscle to temporarily eliminate static wrinkles. The effects of Botox typically last about 90 days. 

Bowen disease: A form of intraepidermal carcinoma characterized by the development of slowly enlarging pinkish or brownish papules or eroded plaques covered with a thickened horny layer. Microscopically, there is dyskeratosis with large round epidermal cells that contain large nuclei and pale-staining cytoplasm and are scattered through all levels of the epidermis.

Brow lift: Operation to elevate the eyebrows.

Brow ptosis: Droopy eyebrow caused by heavy tissue above the eye; it can obstruct vision and result in fatigue caused by the effort required to raise this tissue out of the way.

Buccal mucus membrane graft:  A type of mucosal graft from the lips; commonly used to reconstruct the fornices in situations that the patient lacks normal tissue from previous trauma, injury or birth defect.

Bulbar conjunctiva: The thin, clear tissue over the sclera, which is the white part of the eyeball.


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